Esta página constitui um repositório de artigos científicos, artigos de blogs e outros sobre Educação, Inovação, eLearning.


Submitting a doctoral thesis on online learning, by Tony Bates, July 2014

Muitos mais foram sendo reunidos em agregadores, tais como:


Assessment –



eLearning publications –


Ambientes pedagógicos –

Ambientes e pedagogias emergentes –

Ethics eResearch –

eResearch Studies –

eResearch –

Escola Alternativa –

Online Discourse –

Grounded Theory –

Métodos e técnicas de investigação –

Método etnográfico –

Método Investigação-Ação –

Estudo de caso –

Técnicas recolha de dados –

Pearltrees (Governança, OER, técnicas investigação…)

No Teachers, No Class, No Homework. Would You send your Kids Here? – 2012 – Emily Chertoff – The Atlantic News

Democratic schooling may be the most radical experiment in education of the past 100 years.

In Massachusetts farm country, not far from Boston, a group of about 200 students of all ages are part of a radical experiment.

Sudbury Valley School will this spring find itself one focus of a book by the psychologist and Boston College professor Peter Gray, whose own son attended Sudbury Valley in the 1980s.

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship – 2012 – G. Veletsianos and R. Kimmons, Univ Texas – IRRODL

Researchers, educators, policymakers, and other education stakeholders hope and anticipate that openness and open scholarship will generate positive outcomes for education and scholarship. Given the emerging nature of open practices, educators and scholars are finding themselves in a position in which they can shape and/or be shaped by openness. The intention of this paper is (a) to identify the assumptions of the open scholarship movement and (b) to highlight challenges associated with the movement’s aspirations of broadening access to education and knowledge. Through a critique of technology use in education, an understanding of educational technology narratives and their unfulfilled potential, and an appreciation of the negotiated implementation of technology use, we hope that this paper helps spark a conversation for a more critical, equitable, and effective future for education and open scholarship.

Educational Technology for equity – 2012 – Laura Czerniewicz – blog da própria

 Affording the Classroom of the Future – 2012 – Bridget McCrea – The Journal blog

How (not) to design an online course – 2012 – Debbie Morrison  – Blog Online Learning Insights

OER and social inclusion – 2012 – Tony Bates – Blog Online Learning and Distance Education Resources

Rethinking the learning experience: part IV – 2012 – Tom Segal – Huffington Post Education Blog

OER brings free and affordable college options closer to reality – 2012 – Blog Innovative Educator

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) – time for takeoff? – 2012 – Blog HEDDA (Higher Education Development Assoc.)

Open Education, open source and the dilemma over e-textbooks – 2012 – Carolyn Fox – Blog Open

Teachers Guide to the 21st century Learning Model: Connected Learning – 2012 – Blog Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

Using Vygotsky to Understand Connectivism: Proximity and Duration – 2012 – Blog A Point of Contact

Five Characteristics of Learner-Centered Teaching – 2012 – Maryellen Weimer – Blog Faculty Focus

In May I finished a second edition of my Learner-Centered Teaching book. Revising it gave me the chance to revisit my thinking about the topic and look at work done since publication of the first edition ten years ago. It is a subject about which there is still considerable interest. The learner-centered label now gets attached to teaching strategies, teachers, classes, programs, departments and institutions. Like many trendy descriptors in higher education, with widespread use comes a certain definitional looseness. Active learning, student engagement and other strategies that involve students and mention learning are called learner-centered. And although learner-centered teaching and efforts to involve students have a kind of bread and butter relationship, they are not the same thing. In the interest of more definitional precision, I’d like to propose five characteristics of teaching that make it learner-centered.

Estilos de Coaprendizagem para uma coletividade aberta de pesquisa – 2011 – Luiísa Miranda; Carlos Morais e outros

O presente artigo aborda a teoria dos estilos de aprendizagem e suas possibilidades para uma coletividade aberta de pesquisa numa dinâmica de coaprendizagem entre os sujeitos. Toda esta discussão é contextualizada no âmbito da sociedade em rede, em que as tecnologias da informação e da comunicação assumem particular centralidade em diversas dimensões do quotidiano.

Os principais objetivos desta reflexão são identificar os elementos e características da teoria dos Estilos de Aprendizagem; identificar questões importantes relacionadas com Estilos de Aprendizagem e Coletividade; compreender a relação entre Estilos de Aprendizagem e Coletividade Aberta de Pesquisa; e conceituar os Estilos de Coaprendizagem.

Formação permanente de educadores, Recursos Educacionais Abertos -REA- e integração dos conhecimentos – Stela Conceição Bertholo Piconez – Univ. S. Paulo

Este capítulo tem por finalidade apresentar uma proposta dinâmica de integração de componentes educacionais abertos, na formação permanente de educadores, para desenvolvimento de proposta pedagógica inter, intra e transdisciplinar. Pretende oferecer para as comunidades de pesquisa subsídios para:

  • Compreender a dinâmica inter-relacional de diferentes tipos de conhecimentos (conceituais, procedimentais e atitudinais) apoiada por recursos educacionais abertos (REA).
  • Identificar os desafios da complexa dinamicidade na formação docente das questões relacionadas às teorias de aprendizagem  conectadas à  filosofia de abertura  dos REA.
  • Conhecer uma aplicação da integração de conteúdos (conceituais, procedimentais e atitudinais e tecnológicos) para o desenvolvimento de projetos ou de episódios-aula, apoiada pela filosofia de REA.

A Pedagogy of Abundance or a Pedagogy to Support Human Beings? Participant Support on Massive Open Online Courses – Nov 2011 – Rita Kop Hélène Fournier (National research Council Canada) e John Fui Sai Mak (Australia) – revista IRRODL

This paper examines how emergent technologies could influence the design of learning environments. It will pay particular attention to the roles of educators and learners in creating networked learning experiences on massive open online courses (MOOCs). The research shows that it is possible to move from a pedagogy of abundance to a pedagogy that supports human beings in their learning through the active creation of resources and learning places by both learners and course facilitators. This pedagogy is based on the building of connections, collaborations, and the exchange of resources between people, the building of a community of learners, and the harnessing of information flows on networks. This resonates with the notion of emergent learning as learning in which actors and system co-evolve within a MOOC and where the level of presence of actors on the MOOC influences learning outcomes.

Why Online Education is ready for Disruption, now – Nov 2011 – Clayton Christensen

Earlier this year we discussed how the Internet is revolutionizing education and featured several companies and organizations that are disrupting the online education space including Open Yale, Open Culture, Khan Academy, Academic Earth, P2PU, Skillshare, Scitable and Skype in the Classroom. The Internet has changed how we interact with Time. We can be learning all the time now, whenever we want, and wherever we want. And because of that, we’re seeing explosive growth in online education.

OERu vs. Pearsons vs. OEU – Leigh Blackall blog – Nov.2011

Metaphors, Methods and Flows: Elements for a Cartpgraphy of Technology in Learning – 2011 – Ruben Puentedura (Ph.D)

The Effects of Twitter in an Online Learning Environment – Feb 2011  – eLearn Magazine – Logan Rath

How Technology Can Improve Online Learning – and Learning in General – 12 Nov 2011 – The Chronicle – Robert W. Mendenhall, Western Governors University

Quality, enhancement and on-line distance education courses and programmes – 2006 – Peter Knight – Open Univ, UK

Online enrollments in the USA grow 10% in 2011; OERs becoming accepted – post em blog em 9 Nov. 2011 – as estatísticas baseiam-se em dados de Babson Survey Research Group. It is based on responses from over 2,500 institutions (a response rate of 55%).

Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy – 2011 – Terry Anderson and Jon Dron – Athabasca University, Canada

This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy. Unlike earlier classifications of distance education based on the technology used, this analysis focuses on the pedagogy that defines the learning experiences encapsulated in the learning design. The three generations of cognitive-behaviourist, social constructivist, and connectivist pedagogy are examined, using the familiar community of inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) with its focus on social, cognitive, and teaching presences. Although this typology of pedagogies could also be usefully applied to campus-based education, the need for and practice of openness and explicitness in distance education content and process makes the work especially relevant to distance education designers, teachers, and developers. The article concludes that high-quality distance education exploits all three generations as determined by the learning content, context, and learning expectations.

eLearning and Constructivism: From Theory to Application – 2009 – Alex Koohang, Liz Riley, Terry Smith – Macon State College, Georgia, USA e  Jeanne Schreurs – Hasselt University, Belgium

This paper presents a learner-centered model for designing e-learning assignments/activities within e-learning environments. The model is based on constructivism learning theory. The model includes two categories – the learning design elements (comprised of fundamental design elements and collaborative elements) and the learning assessment elements (self-assessment, team assessment, and facilitator’s assessment). The application of the model is shown through various working examples. A factual situation using the model within an e-learning course is presented to further demonstrate the application of the model in an actual e-learning environment.

Transforming Asia through Open and Distance Learning – 2011 – Sir John Daniel – 25th Annual Conference Asian Assoc. of Open Universities, Penang, Malaysia

The state of Penang is an example of successful transformation in Asia based on strengthening the rule of law. Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is an important vehicle for the education that can underpin this process by expanding the freedoms that people can enjoy. Using technology can not only cut costs but also enhance the quality of education and therefore yield important benefits. The development of eLearning has encouraged many conventional universities to offer ODL but research in North America suggests that few are doing it very well. Private forprofit providers are more successful. Research also shows that the notion of a divide in attitudes to eLearning between young ‘digital natives’ and older students is a myth. Technology-mediated learning encourages all students to engage more deeply with their work. Finally, the Open Educational Resource University is described as a potentially radical
transformation in higher education.

Policy for the Poor and Poor Education Policy: an essay review – 2011 – Michael W. Apple – University of Wisconsin, Madison

The Psychology of eLearning: A Field of Study – 2003 – ZHENG YAN, State University of New York at Albany – HEPING HAO, Tufts University – L. JON HOBBS – NING WEN, State University of New York at Albany

In this article, we present our views of the psychology of E-learning as a field of study that is important, interdisciplinary, emerging, and promising. We first define E-learning as the third learning system in the history of human learning, specify two major E-learning practices in education and corporations,
and indicate the importance of psychological studies of E-learning. We then point out the interdisciplinary nature of the psychology of learning and summarize the existing literature of the psychology of E-learning in cognitive, social, developmental, and school and counseling psychology. We comment on major accomplishments and limitations of the special issue, and conclude with a brief discussion of possible future research directions.

Visitors and Residents: A New Typology for Online Engagement – 2011 – David S. White and Allison Le Cornu

This article proposes a continuum of ‘Visitors’ and ‘Residents’ as a replacement for Prensky’s much‐criticised Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants. Challenging the basic premises upon which Prensky constructed his typology, Visitors and Residents fulfil a similar purpose in mapping individuals’ engagement with the Web. We argue that the metaphors of ‘place’ and ‘tool’ most appropriately represent the use of technology in contemporary society, especially given the advent of social media. The Visitors and Residents continuum accounts for people behaving in different ways when using technology, depending on their motivation and context, without categorising them according to age or background. A wider and more accurate representation of online behaviour is therefore established.

Knowledge Building: Theory, Pedagogy and Technology – 2006 – Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter – Resumo-

Montessori and Secondary Education – Declaration of Bad Honnef – 2010

How to Create Nonreaders: Reflections on Motivation, Learning and Sharing Power – 2010 – Alfie Kohn

What a teacher can do – all a teacher can do – is work with students to create a classroom culture, a climate, a curriculum that will nourish and sustain the fundamental inclinations that everyone starts out with: to make sense of oneself and the world, to become increasingly competent at tasks that are regarded as consequential, to connect with (and express oneself to) other people. Motivation – at least intrinsic motivation – is something to be supported, or if necessary revived. It’s not something we can instill in students by acting on them in a certain way. You can tap their motivation, in other words, but you can’t ‘motivate them’.

Designing an assessment system – Derek Rowntree, professor of educational development, Institute of Educational technology, Open University, UK.

As any HE teacher soon becomes aware, assessment is a major concern in designing and running a course. It can take up a large part of both teachers’ and students’ time, cause considerable anxiety and play a major role in determining how and what learners learn. A recent study at Leeds Metropolitan University (Innis, 1996) confirmed one’s suspicions that most of students’ out-of-class study time is devoted to assessed tasks. Indeed, it has often been observed that assessment is the tail that wags the educational dog — but is it always wagging as we might wish? The purpose of this essay is to help you develop or improve an assessment strategy that will truly foster and reward your students’ learning.

Universal Instructional Design Principles for Moodle – 2010 – Tanya Elias – Athabasca University, Canada

The paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID) principles appropriate to distance education (DE) and tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online.  These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its LMS platform (Moodle) to increase course accessibility.  Numerous accessibility-sensitive plug-in modules are found to be available to Moodle users, though relatively few features were included in the sample course analysed. This may be because they have not been made available to instructors at the institutional level.  The paper offers a series of recommendations to improve the accessibility of online DE to learners with diverse abilities, disabilities, and needs.

Peer-To-Peer Recognition of Learning in Open Education – 2009 – Jan Philipp Schmidt, UN University MERIT; Christine Geith, Michigan State Uni; Stian Haklev, University of Toronto; Joel Thierstein, Rice University.

Recognition in education is the acknowledgment of learning achievements. Accreditation is certification of such recognition by an institution, an organization, a government, a community, etc. There are a number of assessment methods by which learning can be evaluated (exam, practicum, etc.) for the purpose of recognition and accreditation, and there are a number of different purposes for the accreditation itself (i.e., job, social recognition, membership in a group, etc). As our world moves from an industrial to a knowledge society, new skills are needed. Social web technologies offer opportunities for learning, which build these skills and allow new ways to assess them.This paper makes the case for a peer-based method of assessment and recognition as a feasible option for accreditation purposes. The peer-based method would leverage online communities and tools, for example digital portfolios, digital trails, and aggregations of individual opinions and ratings into a reliable assessment of quality. Recognition by peers can have a similar function as formal accreditation, and pathways to turn peer recognition into formal credits are outlined. The authors conclude by presenting an open education assessment and accreditation scenario, which draws upon the attributes of open source software communities: trust, relevance, scalability, and transparency.
Academic Alternative School Settings: A Conceptual Analysis – 2010 – Jo Ann Anderson Beken, John Williams, Julie P. Combs, John R. Slate
In this article, we review the issues faced by students who are at-risk of dropping out of school. Specific topics examined herein were: (a) students in danger of dropping out of school; (b) defining dropouts; (c) at-risk students and dropouts; (d) the history of traditional education; (e) alternative schools; and, (f) accountability and alternative education. Also explored in this literature review are studies about school settings and the impact the aforementioned issues have on at-risk students.
Open Courseware Futures: Creating a Parallel Universe – James C. Taylor, University of Southern Queensland, Australia
A recent special edition of International Higher Education focused on the demographic trends associated with the emerging universal aspiration for access to higher education, and associated projections that global student numbers will almost double to reach 160 million by 2025 (Klemencic, M. & Fried, J 2007). In a similar vein, Alex Usher (2007) of the Educational Policy Institute predicted that at current rates of world wide growth, the number of students in post-secondary education will more than double in less than ten years. The fact that the present conventional classroom-based approaches to teaching and learning will not be capable of meeting the escalating demand for higher education in the knowledge society represents a major leadership challenge. As Daniel, Kanwar and Uvalić-Trumbić recently highlighted, it is not economically viable to continue to build more universities: “India alone would need nearly 2,400 additional universities in the next 25 years – or roughly two new universities per week” (2007). It is yet to be widely acknowledged that in both developed and developing countries, the Internet will provide the only viable cost-effective means to provide sustainable access to education and training opportunities. In many countries, the present lack of infrastructure embodied in discussions of the “Digital Divide” is of course a complex mediating factor, but even where potential students have access to the Internet, the vast majority cannot afford the high fees necessary to gain access to courses, assessment and accreditation. In effect, there exists not only a digital divide, but also a financial exclusion divide.
Building Sense of Community at a Distance – 2002 – Alfred Rovai, Regent University, Virginia
This article challenges the belief that strong sense of community is limited to the traditional classroom and proposes that the virtual classroom has the potential of building and sustaining sense of community at levels that are comparable to the traditional classroom. Drawing on research literature, the concept of learning community is applied to the virtual classroom by taking on the issue of how best to design and conduct an online course that fosters community among learners who are physically separated from each other. Course design principles are described that facilitate dialogue and decrease psychological distance, thereby increasing a sense of community among learners.
La Charte de l’École Moderne – carta adotada no Congresso de Pau em 1968
Teachers in the Age of Digital Instruction – Bryan C. Hassel and Emily Ayscue Hassel – Fordham Institute
As digital tools proliferate and improve, solid instruction in the basics will eventually become “flat”—available anywhere globally—and the elements of excellent  teaching that are most difficult for technology to replace will increasingly differentiate student outcomes. As a result,  teacher effectiveness may matter even more  than  it  does  today, as the selectivity and prevalence of the teachers-in-charge
who will leverage technology—and be leveraged by it—will be the distinguisher of learning outcomes among schools and nations. But in order to allow for such a drastic reshaping of the education system in the U.S., myriad policies affecting teachers—from professional development to compensation—will need to be revamped. This paper outlines how.
Conjunto de artigos de David Wiley sobre Open Education/Open Access –

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